How hereditary is Parkinson's disease?

DNA kit adntro box

Discover your genetic predisposition and protection to more than 120 diseases and much more with the most complete DNA kit.

Use the coupon BLOG10

Already genotyped? Upload your RAW DNA for free!

Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that affects the central nervous system, specifically the areas of the brain responsible for movement control. It is a degenerative disease that affects approximately 1-3% of the population over 60 years of age and is influenced by different factors such as genetics.

Symptoms of Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease occurs when nerve cells in the basal ganglia, cells responsible for producing dopamine, deteriorate or die. Dopamine is involved in many functions including movement control. That is why patients with this disease present involuntary or uncontrollable movements among which the characteristic tremors of Parkinson's disease stand out.

Without sufficient dopamine, the direct circuit (responsible for the initiation and execution of voluntary movements) is not adequately activated, and the indirect circuit (responsible for suppressing involuntary or unnecessary movements) is not adequately inhibited, resulting in difficulties in initiating and controlling movements.

This is a progressive symptomatology based on:

  1. Stiffness
  2. Tremors
  3. Slowness in the initiation and execution of movements (bradykinesia).
  4. Difficulty in maintaining balance and posture.
Parkinson's disease and genetics

What are the types of Parkinson's disease?

There are three very different types of Parkinson's disease in terms of the age of the patients:

  1. Late Onset Parkinson's: it is the most common. It occurs in 90% of Parkinson's cases and symptoms appear in people over 60. Only 10% of these cases are hereditary, the rest are due to genetic predispositions and exposure to environmental factors.
  2. Early Onset Parkinson's: occurs in only 5-10% of Parkinson's cases and is that which develops at less than 50 years of age. This form of Parkinson's is hereditary.
  3. Atypical juvenile Parkinson's: occurs during the 20s and is extremely rare. According to orphanet, there are only 6 families worldwide with this type of Parkinson's disease.

How do genetics affect Parkinson's?

Although there are monogenic forms (a single gene is responsible for the manifestation of the disease), most cases are the result of the complex interaction between phenotypic factors such as age or gender (more frequent in males), environmental factors such as exposure to certain toxins (pesticides) and genetic factors. In addition, an association has been seen between the presence of the ε4 allele of APOE (risk factor for Alzheimer's disease) and the susceptibility to develop Parkinson's disease.

Regarding the specific genes involved, numerous genes (either causal or susceptibility genes) are known. Among them we can find:

  1. Late Onset Parkinson's disease: variations in LRRK2, PARK, VPS35 and GBA genes.
  2. Early Onset Parkinson's: this type of Parkinson's has been associated with the genes LRRK2, PARK1, PARK2, PARK5, PARK6, PARK7, PARK8, VPS13C and PODXL.
  3. Atypical juvenile Parkinson's: in the few patients diagnosed with this type of Parkinson's, variations in the genes ATP13A2, PLA2G6, FBXO7, DNAJC6, SPG11, SPG15 and SYNJ1 have been seen.
Parkinson's disease and dopamine

Changes in the expression or presence of mutations in the PARK1 gene (also known as SNCA) are thought to have neurotoxic effects on dopaminergic neurons. This gene expresses the protein α-synuclein, whose monomers form fibrils and protofibrils that are toxic in dopamine-producing neurons, thus causing their death and reducing the amount of dopamine in the organism.

Discover how your genetic variants modify the risk of developing Parkinson's with ADNTRO's genetic test.

Share this post

More interesting articles

The best DNA test on the market
Corporate news

The Best DNA Test

What is a DNA Test and How Does it Work? DNA tests have become an essential tool to know our roots, our genetic backgrounds, our

Read more "
DNA kit adntro box

Discover your genetic predisposition and protection to more than 120 diseases and much more with the most complete DNA kit.

Use the coupon BLOG10

Already genotyped? Upload your RAW DNA for free!

Other topics

Start a unique journey inside your DNA

Kind regards from ADNTRO team

Share this post:


Get a 10% discount!

An Investment
for all Life

DNA test with saliva sample
More complete analysis
Ancestry, Nutrigenetics, Traits and Diseases,...
Already genotyped?

If you have taken a test with 23andMe, MyHeritage, and others, you can upload your DNA for free at 23andMe, MyHeritage, and others.

Digestive Medicine

For digestive clinics or physicians. Provides information on the genetic predisposition to develop diseases of the digestive system- such as Chron's, Inflammatory Bowel Disease among many others - as well as intolerances. This supports a possible early diagnosis and prevention. The results of this study are very positive, allowing for more precise and personalized interventions to improve the quality of life of the patients.



The applicability and importance of the PRSs in cardio is endorsed by the American Heart Association (AHA). The applicability of PRS is made possible thanks to this tool that helps in the cardiovascular disease prevention: identifying patients with a higher genetic risk of developing conditions such as diabetes, thromboembolism, hypercholesterolemia, and coronary artery disease (CAD), among others, enabling early interventions and preventive measures to improve patients' cardiovascular health.

integrate genetics into your practice

Biobanks, Pharmacies and CROs

Access and consultation of genetic data relevant to health and pharmacology. Thanks to this tool, it is possible to know the predisposition of patients to suffer adverse effects and what dose adjustments are necessary for more than 150 drugs, thus improving safety, efficacy and treatment personalization. This information is backed by Stanford University and approved by the FDA and gives solutions for biobanks, and research organizations.

integrate genetics into your practice


Specialized for dermatological clinics, this service provides information on dermatogenomics: skin sensitivities, efficacy of various topical and oral treatments, essential vitamins and minerals for skin health, dermatological conditions, skin types and more data to help you customize your skin care recommendations.

integrate genetics into your practice

Fitness and wellness centers

Genetic analysis allows for the design of personalized training programs that, taking into account genetic characteristics focused on the world of sports, such as muscle fiber types and predisposition to injuries, maximize performance and reduce the risk of injuries. Additionally, by considering genetic factors related to sleep and longevity, recommendations can be offered for a healthy and sustainable lifestyle.

integrate genetics into your practice

Nutri & Fitness

The practical application of nutrigenomics allows you to differentiate yourself from the competition by offering your patients personalized and accurate information on genetic predispositions to food intolerances.The results of this approach allow the design of dietary plans completely adapted to the genetic profile of the patient. This approach makes it possible to design dietary plans completely adapted to the individual needs maximizing results and providing an exceptional and differentiated service in the field of nutrition.

integrate genetics into your practice


Very useful for psychiatric clinics and psychological clinics. Provides information on the genetic predisposition to develop nervous system diseases and mental disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and OCD, among others. This supports a possible early diagnosis and prevention of these conditions, allowing for more precise and personalized interventions for improve the quality of life of patients.

integrate genetics into your practice