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Deoxyribonucleic acid (abbreviated DNA) is the molecule that carries our genetic information for the development and functioning of an organism. It consists of more than 3 billion base pairs ("lethrites") in each of the cells of our body.

DNA structure

What is DNA for?

DNA is essential for life and its proper functioning, as it is responsible for the transmission and regulation of genetic information and the synthesis of proteins.

It mainly stores genetic information, information that makes us who we are and makes it possible for us to be alive. It is responsible for synthesizing the functional units of our body (proteins) and regulating the expression of genes.

It also serves as the primary unit of inheritance in all living beings. In other words, every time an organism reproduces, a portion of its DNA is passed on to its offspring. This total or partial transmission of an organism's DNA helps ensure a certain level of continuity from one generation to the next, while allowing slightly changes that contribute to the diversity of life, the adaptation of species, and their evolution.

DNA structure

And you may wonder, how is it possible that a cell (not visible for the human eye) can storage more than 3,000 million letters that are equivalent to 2 meters in length?

This is possible thanks to the compaction in which DNA and its complex structure are found. DNA consists of different levels of condensation being de lower to higher:


DNA is composed of a linear sequence of nucleotides, which are the structural units of the DNA molecule. Each nucleotide is composed of a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group and a five-carbon sugar (deoxyribose). The nitrogenous base can be adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) or guanine (G).

Nucleotide - DNA Structure

DNA double helix

The DNA molecule is a double helix, in which two strands of nucleotides are wound together to form a spiral structure. The two strands of DNA are linked by hydrogen bonds between complementary nitrogenous bases. Each strand of a DNA molecule is composed of a long strand of nucleotide monomers.

DNA double helix - Structure


The DNA molecule is organized into nucleosomes thanks to histones. Histones are essential proteins for maintaining the structure of DNA which in turn facilitates its accessibility to regulatory factors and the transcription and replication machinery. Due to their positive charge they are able to compact DNA (negative charge). Each nucleosome contains approximately 147 base pairs of DNA and several proteins.

Nucleosome - DNA structure


Chromatin is the form in which DNA is found in the eukaryotic cell (coiled nucleosomes). Chromatin is composed of a combination of DNA and chromosomal proteins, especially histones, that keep DNA in a compact structure accessible for genetic regulation. Chromatin is a condensed material found in the nucleus of the cell for most of the cell cycle.

It is a condensed and dynamic material that is composed of DNA and chromosomal proteins and plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression and in the equitable distribution of DNA during cell division.


During cell division, chromatin condenses to form chromosomes during cell division, allowing for the equal separation and distribution of DNA to daughter cells.

These are long and elongated structures that can be visualized with an optical microscope during a very specific point in the cell cycle, the cell division.

Chromosome - DNA from nucleotide to chromosome.

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Digestive Medicine

For digestive clinics or physicians. Provides information on the genetic predisposition to develop diseases of the digestive system- such as Chron's, Inflammatory Bowel Disease among many others - as well as intolerances. This supports a possible early diagnosis and preventionThe results of this study are very positive, allowing for more precise and personalized interventions to improve the quality of life of the patients.



The applicability and importance of the PRSs in cardio is endorsed by the American Heart Association (AHA). The applicability of PRS is made possible thanks to this tool that helps in the cardiovascular disease prevention: identifying patients with a higher genetic risk of developing conditions such as diabetes, thromboembolism, hypercholesterolemia, and coronary artery disease (CAD), among others, enabling early interventions and preventive measures to improve patients' cardiovascular health.

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Biobanks, Pharmacies and CROs

Access and consultation of genetic data relevant to health and pharmacology. Thanks to this tool, it is possible to know the predisposition of patients to suffer adverse effects and what dose adjustments are necessary for more than 150 drugs, thus improving safety, efficacy and treatment personalization. This information is backed by Stanford University and approved by the FDA and gives solutions for biobanks, and research organizations.

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Specialized for dermatological clinics, this service provides information on dermatogenomics: skin sensitivities, efficacy of various topical and oral treatments, essential vitamins and minerals for skin health, dermatological conditions, skin types and more data to help you customize your skin care recommendations.

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Fitness and wellness centers

Genetic analysis allows for the design of personalized training programs that, taking into account genetic characteristics focused on the world of sports, such as muscle fiber types and predisposition to injuries, maximize performance and reduce the risk of injuries. Additionally, by considering genetic factors related to sleep and longevity, recommendations can be offered for a healthy and sustainable lifestyle.

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Nutri & Fitness

The practical application of nutrigenomics allows you to differentiate yourself from the competition by offering your patients personalized and accurate information on genetic predispositions to food intolerances.The results of this approach allow the design of dietary plans completely adapted to the genetic profile of the patient. This approach makes it possible to design dietary plans completely adapted to the individual needs maximizing results and providing an exceptional and differentiated service in the field of nutrition.

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Very useful for psychiatric clinics and psychological clinics. Provides information on the genetic predisposition to develop nervous system diseases and mental disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and OCD, among others. This supports a possible early diagnosis and prevention of these conditions, allowing for more precise and personalized interventions for improve the quality of life of patients.

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