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The human genome it's ours Genetic information taken as a whole. They are the 3.2 billion "letters" that make up our DNA. From the 22,000 genes that we have in our body to the mitochondrial DNA passing through the regulatory regions of the expression of those genes to proteins (effector biomolecules of our organism). The Mitochondrial DNA It is inherited from our mother (16,000 bases), it is small and circular and encompasses the genetic information of the mitochondria, essential cellular organelles where the energy necessary for our body to function properly is produced.

How the human genome is structured

It is structured in 23 chromosomes, an ultra-condensed form of DNA. Thanks to the way in which DNA is stored, each of the small human cells, whose diameter is 6 * 10-6 meters, is capable of housing the entire genome. This may not sound very impressive, but if we linearly expand the genome, it would be equivalent to two meters long.

Multiplying these 2 meters of DNA contained in each human cell by the average number of cells in a human being (10 billion), it is estimated that our organism contains a total of 20 billion meters of DNA. Yes, as you read it. You have 20 billion meters of genetic information inside you, which is equivalent to 600 round trips from the Earth to the Sun. Incredible, isn't it?

If we go back to the technical and descriptive part, we find different types of regions that make up the genome. Coding regions (the exome - 1% of the genome) and non-coding regulatory regions. What does this mean? Of all these "letters", only 1% end up being expressed in proteins (functional elements of our body). However, this process is so complex that we need other regions of the genome to regulate its expression and to do it differently depending on the type of cell we are in (skin cell, liver cell...) - Click here if you want to know more about the components involved in protein synthesis.

What is the Human Genome Project?

At 2001 a project called the Human Genome Project was launched, which made it possible to sequence (know the information) of the human genome for the very first time. The most striking aspect of this project is not "only" the novelty gives you access Advance in knowledge that allowed us to carry it out, but the fact that it took almost 10 years and 100 million dollars to undertake it Today,thanks to the progress of science and new technologies, you can obtain your genome information for approximately 1000 euros making it increasingly more affordable to have access to your genetic information and all the advantage that this entails. If you are interested in knowing all the information that your genome contains, click here.

Figure 1: Human Genome sequencing cost reduction.

Although the Human Genome Project is the best known, it is not the only project that revolves around the Human Genome. The 1000 Genomes Project made it possible to obtain a database with individuals from different regions, allowing to study the genetic variability among human beings. We also want to highlight the ENCODE Project (acronym of ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements), which made it possible to assign biochemical functions to 80% of the genome, also providing new knowledge on the organization and regulation of genes and the genome, knowledge that plays a key role on the study of human biology and diseases.

If you liked this post, we leave you 2 related posts that may be of interest to you:

The types of RNA

The arrival of genomic medicine thanks to mass sequencing (NGS)

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Digestive Medicine

For digestive clinics or physicians. Provides information on the genetic predisposition to develop diseases of the digestive system- such as Chron's, Inflammatory Bowel Disease among many others - as well as intolerances. This supports a possible early diagnosis and prevention. The results of this study are very positive, allowing for more precise and personalized interventions to improve the quality of life of the patients.

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Cardio

The applicability and importance of the PRSs in cardio is endorsed by the American Heart Association (AHA). The applicability of PRS is made possible thanks to this tool that helps in the cardiovascular disease prevention: identifying patients with a higher genetic risk of developing conditions such as diabetes, thromboembolism, hypercholesterolemia, and coronary artery disease (CAD), among others, enabling early interventions and preventive measures to improve patients' cardiovascular health.

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Access and consultation of genetic data relevant to health and pharmacology. Thanks to this tool, it is possible to know the predisposition of patients to suffer adverse effects and what dose adjustments are necessary for more than 150 drugs, thus improving safety, efficacy and treatment personalization. This information is backed by Stanford University and approved by the FDA and gives solutions for biobanks, and research organizations.

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Dermatology

Specialized for dermatological clinics, this service provides information on dermatogenomics: skin sensitivities, efficacy of various topical and oral treatments, essential vitamins and minerals for skin health, dermatological conditions, skin types and more data to help you customize your skin care recommendations.

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Fitness and wellness centers

Genetic analysis allows for the design of personalized training programs that, taking into account genetic characteristics focused on the world of sports, such as muscle fiber types and predisposition to injuries, maximize performance and reduce the risk of injuries. Additionally, by considering genetic factors related to sleep and longevity, recommendations can be offered for a healthy and sustainable lifestyle.

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The practical application of nutrigenomics allows you to differentiate yourself from the competition by offering your patients personalized and accurate information on genetic predispositions to food intolerances.The results of this approach allow the design of dietary plans completely adapted to the genetic profile of the patient. This approach makes it possible to design dietary plans completely adapted to the individual needs maximizing results and providing an exceptional and differentiated service in the field of nutrition.

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Very useful for psychiatric clinics and psychological clinics. Provides information on the genetic predisposition to develop nervous system diseases and mental disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and OCD, among others. This supports a possible early diagnosis and prevention of these conditions, allowing for more precise and personalized interventions for improve the quality of life of patients.

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