There are several genes involved in metabolic pathways that influence the care of our line: the type of metabolism (thermogenesis), appetite (satiety) and the breakdown of triglycerides (lipolysis). Depending on the genetic variants that you present for each of these factors, it is suggested that you follow some guidelines or others in your diet.
- If you have a slow metabolism, it is suggested that you stimulate the activation of brown fat (the one that burns). Find out how in the personalized suggestions of the DNA test of ADNTRO.
- If your appetite is high, it is suggested that you have a fractional diet: smaller amounts of food more frequently.
- If your triglyceride breakdown is slow, it is suggested that you reduce your intake of simple carbohydrates among others.
And why is this? The answer lies in genetics
1) APPETITE: GENETICS THAT SUGGESTS A FRACTIONAL DIET
After you have eaten, your body releases leptin, the satiety hormone. Later, when leptin levels drop, ghrelin, the hunger hormone, is released, signaling you to eat.
The leptin signal must be received by neuronal cells. In people who are overweight or obese, there is usually a high level of leptin in their body, but often the neurons in their hypothalamus do not receive the signal. Some researchers theorize that people can be leptin resistant due to genetic variants that also make people 'hyperphagic' or insatiable (the signal is not received in the brain, even though it is being produced).
There are 3 main genes involved in satiety (regulation of food intake):
- MC4R gene: the melanocortin 4 receptor gene plays an important role in food intake, energy balance and weight control. MC4R variants cause obesity by causing hyperphagia (uncontrolled food intake) and decreased satiety.
- Gen FTO: the Gen FTO it acts as an RNA demethylase. This means that the protein encoded by the gene FTO it acts to regulate the gene expression of other genes. Variants in the gene FTO express more FTO, possibly altering the Ghrelin mRNA and causing higher levels of ghrelin ("Hunger hormone"). Furthermore, the gene FTO interacts with leptin and increases resistance to leptin.
- BDNF gene: is a fascinating growth hormone that performs many functions in our brain. It is important in obesity as it is related to how your brain controls your appetite. Low levels of BDNF result in overeating: "hyperphagic behavior".
2) TRIGLYCERIDE BREAKDOWN: GENETICS THAT SUGGESTS SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES REDUCTION.
Fats are generated from excess carbohydrates consumed. These fats (fatty acids) bind with another molecule (glycerol) generating triglycerides.
People who are overweight or obese tend to have higher than normal triglyceride levels, but just as triglycerides are generated, they are also eliminated. Genetic and environmental factors play a role in this elimination. Let's look at the genetic factor associated with triglyceride metabolism.
The degradation of triglycerides takes place in a metabolic process known as lipolysis in which triglycerides are broken down again into fatty acids and glycerol thanks to the lipases, releasing energy for our body.
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the main enzyme responsible for the breakdown of triglycerides encoded by the LPL gene and regulated by the APOA5 gene. This is why genetic variants in the LPL and APOA5 gene are associated with greater or lesser efficiency of lipolysis, that is, of triglyceride degradation.
Variants in the gene GCKR gene are also associated with increased triglyceride levels due to genetic causes. Scientific studies have allowed the elaboration of a potential explanation in which they suggest that these variants decrease the expression of enzymes involved in glycolysis (metabolic pathway that consumes glucose to generate energy) and overexpress enzymes involved in the lipogenesis pathway and in the production of VLDL (molecules in charge of triglyceride transportation).
For these reasons, if you have low levels of lipolysis (slow fat burning), your genetics predispose you to high levels of triglycerides (an influential factor in obesity).Your body is less predisposed to their breakdown.
3) METABOLISM: GENETICS THAT SUGGESTS BROWN FAT ACTIVATION
The genetic explanation associated with slow metabolism can be found in this article where we tell you about the metabolic pathways involved in the consumption of fatty acids and why it is an influential factor when it comes to taking care of your diet.