DNA kit adntro box

Interested in genetics?
Discover everything you can know about your genetic code with the most complete DNA kit.

Use the coupon BLOG10

Already genotyped? Upload your RAW DNA for free!

The evolution of genetics is a fascinating trajectory spanning thousands of years. From the earliest observations on heredity to modern technological advances in genetic engineering and gene editing. In this article we will look at the evolution of genetics over the course of history.

Genetic selection throughout history

Although genetic selection sounds very recent, it is not. Egyptians and Babylonians (around 1,000 B.C.) were the first to put into practice the artificial selection. They selected the most peaceful animals with the best characteristics to obtain new offspring for their livestock, also transferring this logic to crops.

Genetics throughout history

Over the years and with the knowledge acquired over time, genetic selection techniques have become more sophisticated:

  • Artificial selection and selective crosses: are techniques that have been maintained over time, but with important nuances. With the rediscovery of Mendel's laws (1900), geneticists began to apply genetic principles to the selection and crossing of plants and animals.
    They are based on an analysis of the genes that allows a better knowledge of the selected parents. Such crosses can also be made between varieties of the same species.
  • Induced mutagenesisMutations are induced by means of chemicals or radiation. Induced mutagenesis was discovered by Muller in 1927, winning a Nobel Prize in 1946. The aim of this technique is to achieve new characteristics.
  • Somaclonal variation: are variations obtained by in vitro cell or tissue culture. The understanding and formal recognition of somaclonal variation as a significant source of genetic diversity in plants dates back to the decade of 1970.
  • Genetic engineeringGenetic engineering: this is a highly selective hybridization of traits by manipulation of the genetic sequence in the laboratory. Genetic engineering was born in 1973 with the development of recombinant DNA technology by Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer.

Genetic engineering throughout history

Although it emerged in 1973 with the development of recombinant DNA technology, this field has experienced significant evolution. In 1974, Frederick Sanger was a pioneer in validating this technology for the development of modified organisms. However, it was not until the 1980s that the first commercial product, recombinant insulin, was produced, and the first genetically modified crop, insect-resistant Bt corn, was introduced.

With the milestone of complete genome sequencing (2004), genetic engineering continued to evolve until the advent of genetic editing in 2012 with the discovery of CRISPR-Cas. There is still a long way to go, but this technology enables precise and efficient gene editing, facilitating the correction of mutations and genome engineering, developed by Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier.

Genetic editing throughout history

DNA discoveries

The above applications would not have been possible without the genetic findings of important scientific events that occurred throughout history:

  • Gregor Mendel, the father of genetics: In 1865, Mendel conducted experiments with pea plants and discovered the basic laws of inheritance, describing the segregation and dominance of traits.
  • Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, and Erich von Tschermak: All of Mendel's work went unnoticed until these three scientists rediscovered Mendel's laws in 1900.
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan: In 1910, he demonstrated the chromosomal theory proposed by Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri by identifying the genetic basis of inheritance through experiments with Drosophila melanogaster. This theory proposed that chromosomes are the carriers of genes.
  • James Watson and Francis Crick: In 1953, they discovered the double-helix structure of DNA, with crucial assistance from Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins.
  • Frederick Sanger: In 1975, he developed methods for sequencing DNA, known as the Sanger method.
  • Barbara McClintock: In 1983, she received a Nobel Prize for discovering the existence of "jumping" genes or transposons in maize, which demonstrated that genes can move within the genome and affect gene expression.
  • Kary Mullisinvented the well-known PCR in 1983, a technique that allows the amplification of a specific DNA sequence.

Share this post

More interesting articles

DNA kit adntro box

Interested in genetics?
Discover everything you can know about your genetic code with the most complete DNA kit.

Use the coupon BLOG10

Already genotyped? Upload your RAW DNA for free!

Other topics

Start a unique journey inside your DNA

Kind regards from ADNTRO team

Share this post:


Get a 10% discount!

An Investment
for all Life

DNA test with saliva sample
More complete analysis
Ancestry, Nutrigenetics, Traits and Diseases,...
Already genotyped?

If you have taken a test with 23andMe, MyHeritage, Ancestry.com and others, you can upload your DNA for free at 23andMe, MyHeritage, Ancestry.com and others.

Digestive Medicine

For digestive clinics or physicians. Provides information on the genetic predisposition to develop diseases of the digestive system- such as Chron's, Inflammatory Bowel Disease among many others - as well as intolerances. This supports a possible early diagnosis and prevention. The results of this study are very positive, allowing for more precise and personalized interventions to improve the quality of life of the patients.



The applicability and importance of the PRSs in cardio is endorsed by the American Heart Association (AHA). The applicability of PRS is made possible thanks to this tool that helps in the cardiovascular disease prevention: identifying patients with a higher genetic risk of developing conditions such as diabetes, thromboembolism, hypercholesterolemia, and coronary artery disease (CAD), among others, enabling early interventions and preventive measures to improve patients' cardiovascular health.

integrate genetics into your practice

Biobanks, Pharmacies and CROs

Access and consultation of genetic data relevant to health and pharmacology. Thanks to this tool, it is possible to know the predisposition of patients to suffer adverse effects and what dose adjustments are necessary for more than 150 drugs, thus improving safety, efficacy and treatment personalization. This information is backed by Stanford University and approved by the FDA and gives solutions for biobanks, and research organizations.

integrate genetics into your practice


Specialized for dermatological clinics, this service provides information on dermatogenomics: skin sensitivities, efficacy of various topical and oral treatments, essential vitamins and minerals for skin health, dermatological conditions, skin types and more data to help you customize your skin care recommendations.

integrate genetics into your practice

Fitness and wellness centers

Genetic analysis allows for the design of personalized training programs that, taking into account genetic characteristics focused on the world of sports, such as muscle fiber types and predisposition to injuries, maximize performance and reduce the risk of injuries. Additionally, by considering genetic factors related to sleep and longevity, recommendations can be offered for a healthy and sustainable lifestyle.

integrate genetics into your practice

Nutri & Fitness

The practical application of nutrigenomics allows you to differentiate yourself from the competition by offering your patients personalized and accurate information on genetic predispositions to food intolerances.The results of this approach allow the design of dietary plans completely adapted to the genetic profile of the patient. This approach makes it possible to design dietary plans completely adapted to the individual needs maximizing results and providing an exceptional and differentiated service in the field of nutrition.

integrate genetics into your practice


Very useful for psychiatric clinics and psychological clinics. Provides information on the genetic predisposition to develop nervous system diseases and mental disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and OCD, among others. This supports a possible early diagnosis and prevention of these conditions, allowing for more precise and personalized interventions for improve the quality of life of patients.

integrate genetics into your practice